Category Archives: Entrepreneurship

Startup Idea validation: How many people; how long before your idea’s worth pursuing?

Lets say I have an idea. Actually 3 different ideas I want to pursue. My next step is to get validation of that idea. The top 5 questions that I am looking to answer are (not necessarily in order):

1. Is this a real problem? (Pain point validation)

2. Is what I am trying to do solving the problem? (Product – market fit validation)

3. How much of a problem is this for the person who I am providing this solution for? (Customer validation)

4. Will people pay to have this problem solved? If so how much? (Pricing validation)

5. Is the problem big enough that I can make a large company out of solving this problem? (Market size validation)?

So the question is how much do you have to get validation for these questions until you decide to pursue it?

One approach is to actually develop, have customers pay and let the market validate your idea.Which is what was suggested by a user at HN.

The approach I am going to suggest is more measured and less expensive than actually developing the solution before you figure out if that’s the right idea for you to pursue. It involves talking to customers / prospects or even putting together a simple SEM campaign to test the idea out. I think many might say that’s not a new idea, but I dont see over 80% of startups doing this.

That’s way cheaper than time or resources to build your idea to a real product. At some time you have to build a real product and there no denying that.

First I would make a target list of 20 people – 10 who are potential customers who have the same title of the person you believe has the problem you are trying to validate. If you are a consumer startup, that might be the target audience of users who might want the product / service you are building. If you are an B2B company, look for the right title of buyer.

The list should include 5 potential industry experts, who might understand the nuts and bolts better and 5 “laymen”,  or those that have not much of an idea about the intricacies.

Is the number 20 enough? Maybe, not, but its a start.

Then prepare a one paragraph elevator pitch explaining what the problem is, and how you are going to solve it. Email it to your list and track their feedback.

Then try and get prospect validation. This is because people who know you might either a) not want to discourage you, and so give invalid answers, or b) might not understand the solution well enough to provide valid feedback.

I would setup Google adwords campaign for the keywords you think people will most likely click on. If you buy a domain and hosting from Godaddy or some other providers you even get $100 adwords credit, so there’s no excuse.

Create 3 different pages with your multiple campaigns and call to actions, and have a signup sheet (this is your call to action) for each. Track and categorize results. In each of these pages, provide a screenshot of your product / service you are trying to develop.

Wait, you think, wont this give my idea away and attract more competition. Sure, I think it might, but more likely, there’s competition already and you are just not aware of it yet is my answer. Or if there’s no competition, is that not a signal anyway?

Are you celebrating your milestones enough at your startup?

Celebrate all the little things

I had a friend who invited me to his new “office warming” party the other day. Unusual, but fun. It reminded me of our own office “warming” party at Jivity several months ago.

Side note first: If you are like most Indian entrepreneurs, you mom has a big say in the matter (so do most relatives, uncles, aunts and others). First was the date I should sign the agreement (has to add up to 9 was my mom’s advice), then the date I should move in, where I should sit (face East, the sun’s rays should first hit the CEO’s desk! yes, you laugh, but that’s what I was told). Did I really care about all these astrology / numerology and feng shui (Vaastu for us Indians)? Mostly no, but my mom did and mom’s always get their way. Anyway, I digress.

Back to my friend, though, who asked me “How often should we celebrate and what should be celebrate”?

There’s a really simple answer to that – “Very often and anything you believe is something to be proud of”.

That does not mean you break open the champagne every day or take the team out for a 7 course meal each week, but most startups dont celebrate achievements enough.

There are 3 important things celebrations do:

1. They cherish those moments of fun and accomplishment – these are then passed along to all new employees as “folklore”.

2. They help put together shared experiences which helps you tied over the Sine-curve of emotions at your startup.

3. Most importantly though, they reinforce achievement. However small.

Most startups celebrate only the “major” accomplishments – funding, customer wins, new office space,  end of the quarter. Or if you are in India, Diwali, Holi, etc.

The amazing part is there are small milestones you can celebrate daily. I am going to make a short list and please add your own in the comments below.

I put these celebrations into categories: Product, Hiring, Finance, Sales, Customers, Admin (or Operations), Marketing, etc.

Within each of these categories you can have multiple celebrations. For e.g:

1. Product – mockup ready, alpha/beta/version 1 ready, demo ready, etc.

2. Hiring – first employee offer letter, first (or 10th, 20th any number really) employee hired, etc.

3. Finance – funding from angel investor, adding members to the advisory board, etc.

You get the picture.

Here are some more examples!

1. Name resolution from ROC – Yay! The name you wanted for your company is actually available! I suggest going to your local print shop and getting the name typed in gold print & a certificate embossed.

2. Signed up your first advisor – Bring the advisor to meet your team and get everyone lunch. The person who asks the most questions, gets to drink beer. Rest have to drink water.

3. Got your company incorporated. Make 15 copies of you MOA and AOA. You’ll need it! Even the person that serves you tea and coffee in India wants a copy of these in paper!

4. Got your domain registered and website launch page is up! I am told the launch page being up is the most legit you can get early on!

5. Your first mockup created on the back of a napkin. Take multiple photos, get them printed so you can then hopefully sell them on eBay when you get big.

Celebrate more! Have tons of fun and please invite me to the party.

How to survive the sine-curve of emotions at your startup?

I have mentioned several times that working in a startup is like a sine-curve, or a roller-coaster rider. Its multiple ups and downs every hour, day, week and month. It takes a special kind of maturity to handle them as they come and not lose focus of your goal or the near-time milestone. I have tried to share some of the things we did in my previous companies and would love to hear what you guys do to handle the ups and downs.

The thing is, the ups are easy to handle, (that was obvious wasn’t it?) but the lows are make or break. So here are some things that might work for you to handle the downs.

1. Choose you favorite videos / songs and create a YouTube playlist for you and your co founders. Since  I love Dire Straits, Why worry now was part of every playlist and so was The bug.

Funny story: Our office was on the top floor of a building, and the owner “lived” in the first floor. Mid-week after a particularly bad meeting we “synchronized” our laptops to play some music and pick our spirits up. Turns out it was too loud, so our owner’s 60+ year old father trudges up the stairs to find out what’s going on. He saw a bunch of us doing some kind of really bad jig (when were engineers ever good at dance?) and ended up “showing us” how to do it right. I cant remember when we laughed so much. We recorded him making some “good moves” and posted it on our servers as a pick-me-up every week.

2. When you are doing demos with a client, record them by using Skype. Then keep the recording of the best feedback and save them so you can listen to feedback that’s a positive reinforcement.

3. Create your own holiday in the middle of a bad day/week and take many photographs. Post these photos on the glass of a few windows where you can see them daily.

Funny story: Summer months are awful in terms of holidays. There are so few of them that its not even funny. Adding to the misery was the incessant heat and the fact that most kids were out playing while we were working. So we created a mid-week holiday, where everyone in the team had to identify the top 3 places to eat in their neighborhood. The company would pay for them and their significant other’s breakfast, lunch and snack. They could take the day off and spend it recharging themselves and eating at the places they love.

4. Take photos of your first customer order or all your positive customer emails. Then print the photographs or emails them and paste them up on your kitchen area or conference room

5. Pick a favorite restaurant that the team likes which is fairly close (could even be a Baskin Robbins or Subway) and celebrate those down moments by eating out with the team.

What do you do to manage the sine-curve?

What valuations are early stage startups seeking in India ?

We (@vinitaananth and I) got 264 requests for funding in 2011. Of those we met with about 50 companies and ended up funding 3 (we lost out on 2 companies, one because of valuation and another because of mis-communication) . The companies were from across multiple categories including SaaS, eCommerce, Mobile applications, education and hospitality.

The number one question I get from entrepreneurs is what is the valuation I should expect at the seed round? Second question – “Is there a formula or spreadsheet that I can calculate my valuation”?

As many people might have told you already, there is NO standard formula for valuations. None whatsoever. I wish there was. There are several methods or techniques people use to get valuations, including

(a) # of engineers – mostly in cases where there are all star engineers from IIT / Google, etc.

(b) market size

(c) revenue multiple (if applicable)

(d) forward revenues and

(e) made up on-the-fly and pulled out of thin air.

If I had to guesstimate the % of times these different techniques are used, I’d say 80-90% are of type (e) – grin.

Of the 50 companies we met, we got to talking numbers with 20+ of them. Bear in mind these were all types of companies. There were 4 distinct buckets of valuation that we saw, and it was regardless of traction, product, market, etc.

1st: was valuation of 1 CR ($250K), – this was typically 2 people with an idea and early prototype, looking to raise about 10-20L ($20K – $40K)

2nd: 1 CR to 5 CR ($250K – $1M), – typically SaaS & education companies with 1 founder, looking to raise about 10L – 50L ($20K – $100K)

3rd: 5 CR to 10 CR ($1 M – $2M), looking to raise between 40L – 1.2 CR ($90K – $250K)

4th: greater than $2M – this was typically company with customers & some traction/revenues, many eCommerce companies were in this bracket, and they were looking to raise anywhere from 1.25CR to 4 CR ($500K – $750K)

As expected, the number of companies seeking higher valuation were few. We saw 8 companies in the first bucket, 7 in the second, and 4 each in the remaining 2 buckets.

As you can also see the implicit assumption is that the expected ownership of company to the seed investors was going to be about 10%. I have hear horror stories from many entrepreneurs that some angels were asking for 20-30% of the company at the seed round, but I have no way to confirm that.

Caveats: This is only one investors view, limited data set and is across multiple categories and sectors, but gives you a view into some of the numbers startups are asking for, YMMV.

P.S. The companies I actually funded dont want me to share either their names or numbers, so I apologize for being opaque on that. I dont get it, but sharing of data and information by a lot of Indian entrepreneurs and investors is limited to non-existent and leaves a lot to be desired.

5 tips on filtering sales resumes for a startup

This post first appeared in this morning.

Most entrepreneurs & founders will admit that hiring for startups tends to be among the top 3 most challenging tasks. The problem of hiring sales people is more acute in India given that “startup ready” and “risk ready” employees are far and few between. In the initial stages of most startups you tend to hire people with some experience or connections, because they need to get up and running quickly.

The most difficult part of the hiring process I have personally seen in India is the resume (CV) screening process.

Our process at Jivity is similar to most companies. We aggressively try to hire from our network, but that’s often insufficient. I personally believe that most (if not all) resumes are written by only one person in India. After that they are all “copy and paste” or “R&D” – rob and duplicate.

The most important part of the resume filtering process first is to understand the type of sales person you want to hire. Depending on the stage of your company, hire the right person for the role.

There are 3 types of sales people according to me: hustlers, relationship sellers, and process junkies.

Hustlers will get you deals, but not necessarily ones that fit your product or service 100%.

Relationship sales professionals have a good rolodex, but will need a “technical sales consultant” to explain the “details”.

Process junkies are best when you have figured out your sales process, but not great at coming up with new types of customers or new uses of your solution for adjacent markets.

Most companies need to hire hustlers early, then hire relationship sellers and finally at a more mature level, hire process folks.

Here are some of my quick tips for filtering sales resumes if you are hiring for technology startups:

  1. I look for specific and measurable achievements, not a list of activities in a sales resume. That means I will put aside all resumes that say generic things like “generated leads”, “was responsible for many customers”, etc. Instead I look for 3-5 metrics – how much was their target, (you can ask them what was the average selling price of the products they sold during the phone interview if you want to get a sense of their productivity), how many customer (actual number) they sold to over what period of time, what was the level (title) of the person they sold to, in which industries, etc.
  2. Hustlers don’t write professional resumes that are easy to read. They are typically first to find you at events and are willing to introduce themselves. Typically hustlers will stay at a company for 1-2 years max. After that either the company gets too boring for them or they are looking for a more challenging sales position. If you find sentences that say – “was the only sales person at the company”, or “the first BD (business development) resource at the company” or “started a new office in the region” or “landed the first 5 customers” then you are most likely looking at a hustler resume.
  3. Relationship seller resumes will typically have a long tenure in one industry or a location, and (in my experience) will typically have worked at minimum of 2 direct competitors. If the resume includes names of specific accounts (customer names) and specific titles they sold to, then you are looking at a relationship sales person’s resume. Typically the tenure at the company along with the combination of the title of their customer will give you a sense of their breadth and depth of relationship. These people will typically have built a relationship for long enough to help them sell to multiple levels and functional organizations (IT, business, finance, procurement, etc.)
  4. A process-oriented sales person’s resume will typically have a couple of switches from selling to one function (selling to IT vs. business) or type of solution (product vs. services) or ticket size (few big vs. many small). If you find achievements such as “responsible for 3 existing customers and added 4 new customers” you are looking at a process person’s resume. Other things that you will find in a process person’s resume include a listing of many sales methodologies – Spin selling, Target account selling or Complex sale process and a list of courses on negotiation or other management programs they have attended.
  5. Here’s a trick that eliminates many bad sales people. Don’t go by resumes alone. Give them an assignment during the screening call. Ask them to come prepared to present their first 30 day activity plan and their first 15 target customers, customer’s title and make them go over the list of steps and throw a few objections that you believe you have heard from customers which they might have to respond to.

Most companies tend to hire from competitors directly first (if you are in a mature market) or from larger companies in the industry (if you are a disruptive company in an existing space). I personally look for neither. For good sales people in India, I have preferred to hire from smaller companies from other industries where there the value proposition of working for a technology startup is more appealing.

Entrepreneurship is underrated

This post originally appeared at VCCircle on Sep 25h.

Speaking at student entrepreneurship event this week, I got a chance to talk to a few investors on the sidelines. They were observing that entrepreneurship is the “cool thing now among students” and they were skeptical that it would last. They also mentioned that they were disturbed by the hype generated by the press and media on the few successes versus the swathes of companies that were the walking dead. I was thinking to myself that they have a valid point but then realized I was buying into the spin myself.

Entrepreneurship is vastly underrated – everywhere in the world, including in Silicon Valley.

I don’t say this because entrepreneurs create jobs – employees at bigger companies create jobs as well. Neither do I think entrepreneurs necessarily create a lot more value than their counterparts at larger companies (there are exceptions). I also don’t believe entrepreneurs create a lot more wealth than their counterparts at bigger companies. In fact entrepreneurs create wealth for a limited few (venture investors) than employees at larger companies (retail investors).

I say this because entrepreneurs are optimists. Employees’ at large companies are realists.

Realists know that they have constraints (student loan, aging parents, mortgage, etc) and work to optimize their constraints. It’s a much needed skill and a hugely valuable one.

The world needs more optimists at this point.

An entrepreneur’s optimism is infectious. She envelopes you with her obsession for the problem she’s trying to solve. She speaks with the eloquence of a seasoned televangelist and the passion of Russian gym coach trying to urge her prized student to over perform.

The entrepreneur’s optimism is all encompassing. The hurdles she faces daily including lack of connections, lack of credibility or even the inability to meet payroll don’t deter her. Her optimism overwhelms her outlook towards the daunting problems we mortals face daily.

The entrepreneur’s optimism is never ending. She knows (possibly) at the back of her mind that the odds are stacked against her. That’s what makes her admirable – she does not care. As far as she’s concerned, she’s not giving up, either today, tomorrow or when gas prices hit $200 per gallon.

P.S: I always use She instead of He in my posts – its interchangeable for all practical purposes

Essays on the Indian psyche: The “Value for money” conundrum or “More is more”

I met an entrepreneur over breakfast the other day, who is trying to address the luxury needs of the Indian consumer. His company offers high-end metal (not gold or silver) based gifts. The luxury market in India is a very strange one. It’s always the bridesmaid, never the bride. Every year is the “year of luxury” and the beginning of the “inflection point” in luxury goods. Although many luxury vendors are starting to show interest in the Indian local market, they realize most luxury bought by Indians is purchased abroad. It’s not uncommon to hear the intense preference for “value for money” in all products and services, even in the high-end of the market, and I could relate to his experiences. I have seen this consistently in our engagement with senior leaders at various organizations.

I was talking to a fairly large multi-national marketing executive whose bank recently inaugurated their new 50,000 sq. ft. campus. To commemorate the building they decided to make mini-replicas of the building and give it away to every one of their employees at the new facility. They had done a similar piece at their US office, and it was apparently well received by their employees. The cost per piece was about Rs. 2000. The piece would retain nearly 70% of its value if made from the metal that we proposed from our partner. So we recommended that option.

After weeks of deliberation and many discussions with their facilities team and employees, they decided to look at alternative options. The main reason was their Indian employees were not appreciative of the “free” gift they were going to receive.

I had the opportunity also to talk to their senior HR executive who was trying to put together the alternative giveaway for about 2500 employees. This is a typical offshore unit of any large company, with average salaries in the 4L – 6L per year range. Many of their executives consistently make over 20L per year, and there are about 200 of them. The main feedback she got from her employees, was that they felt preferred many inexpensive gifts rather than one expensive one.

After a few weeks they finally settled: Quantity versus quality was the way to go. They decided that they got enough feedback from employees to purchase a T-shirt for Rs. 500 (printed with the façade of the building on the front).  They also hosted a catered lunch over a Friday evening (which would cost them about Rs. 500 per employee). Finally the employees were given a gift voucher to spend at a local mall for Rs. 1000.

I could understand, since most of their employees were young, their preference for a “memento” was lower than those that they perceived to be fun. But the HR executive mentioned in our discussion that most of the rank-and-file employees were not asked for feedback. This was the request from their senior leadership team. The leadership team even shot down the idea of putting together a commemorative trophy for the Rs. 1000 and instead opted for the gift voucher from the mall. She knew it would not necessarily bring long-term-loyalty for the company, but the leadership team felt that long term loyalty was overrated. None of the employees, they felt would feel any different or have more engagement with either the company or the building thanks to the trophy.