Tag Archives: entrepreneur

Always hire Marketing people first over Sales

I have a friend who started a new SaaS company for larger (1000+ employees) organizations. The product is aimed at enterprises and must be “sold”, not bought, meaning while some of his potential customers have this problem, they are not actively looking for a solution. Instead they have used a band-aid to provide short-term fixes for the problem. There are no opportunities for a self-service solution, where someone can “try” then “buy”.

After the initial 5 beta customers (all paid, $120K ARR), and terrific feedback from them, he started to think about raising a $1-$2M round of funding. He had previously raised $300K from angel investors.

The approach to raising his round began with a discussion with his angel investors who each made 1-2 connections to other follow-on investors.

Many of those follow-on conversations turned into “we will wait until you are further along” passes or “you still need more traction for us to get involved” meetings. The company is in Seattle, so the number of investors in the target list was less than 10. A few meetings were in Silicon Valley as well, with similar feedback. None of them mentioned the market was small, but a couple did mention that it was likely a bigger company might be able to build this.

In search of traction, he started to think about hiring a sales person to increase ARR. His website is functional, mostly informative and has the basics. He is spending $1-2K per month on Google ads, getting 4-5 inbound requests from those efforts, but the pace of customer acquisition was slow.

He did connect with a BD / Sales person who he knew from his previous company and started to talk about having her join the startup. She was making $200K all in (base + commission) and wanted some assurances that she will be able to make that in a year. After realizing that it won’t be possible to give her that confidence, he looked at trying to get “commission only sales reps”. No luck there as well.

He finally got a friend-of-a-friend to recommend a young, sales person in New York who wanted to explore a career in technology after selling electrical equipment to large companies for 3-4 years. He was able to get the sales rep for $120K (60K base) all in, a jump of $20K for the rep from his previous position, if he hit his targets. The rep was to generate $500K in initial revenue from large companies in the New York / New Jersey area.

The first 2 weeks of the sales rep’s time was spent in demos and learning, while my friend helped him build a target account list. Then the rep started to build his “email list” of IT directors and managers with the titles that fit the company’s profile. That took 7-8 hours a week to research, collate and build over 2 more weeks. The rep also went back to his connections to ask for referrals to the right person in their organization, which resulted in 3 follow-on meetings.

They built a list of 250 targets with names & email addresses after combing through LinkedIn and another “IT database” from a vendor (DiscoverORG). After 1 week of emailing and cleaning email addresses, some of which bounced, trying different messages and subject lines (A/B testing), they got 2 emails back – both asking them to “remove me from your email list”.

2 months into the process, my friend realized his company was not ready for a sales person.

They did not have content, enough inbound traffic or interest to make the sales person effective. While he identified a few marketing tools – whitepaper, videos that he needed to get done, they were in the works, and he was using contractors and his own time to focus on those, which slowed things down.

He let go of the sales person 3 months after he hired him.

His angel investors provided bridge financing for another $150K for him to hire a marketing person instead and my friend eliminated 1 developer to make room for the marketing budget.

He hired a freelance marketing director for 3 months on contract and is the primary sales person, with a vastly improved website, whitepapers, 3-4 blog entries each month and has appeared in a conference as a speaker as well.

Results:

Sales person for 3 months – total spend ~$18K ($15K salary, plus travel expenses, LinkedIn navigator subscription, email tool – Outreach, database subscription – Discoverorg), etc.

> 23 meetings, 3 follow on discussions and no sales.

Marketing person for 2 months – total spend – $23K ($15K monthly retainer, plus whitepaper content, blog content, travel for conference, etc.)

> 32 meetings and discussions, 5 inbound inquiries, 3 initial pilots, 1 sale for $28K.

While not definitive, I see this consistently with SaaS and enterprise sales startups. The return on marketing dollars over sales is higher, more immediate and sustained.

Most technical founders think they only want a “sales closer” not marketing guy that “creates content” and does some “google ads”.

They dont realize that to make the sales person effective, they need marketing in the first place. Thoughts?

Customer Validation as a Service (CVAS) – an agency for small startups

Customer discovery and validation is a pretty challenging area for most startup entrepreneurs. While most can build a product and maybe even hire people to help it grow, validating with customers and cold calling people to get feedback is hard for most technology entrepreneurs.

Customer Discovery
Customer Discovery

An entrepreneur suggested to me an idea to start an agency that does Customer Validation as a Service (CVAS) or Customer Discovery as a Service (CDAS).

The key part of this service is setting up the problem statement for the entrepreneur, distilling the list of potential customers (Both B2B and B2C) and finding – emailing, talking to and interviewing potential customers to find the top 3 pain points for which they’d pay money for.

Imagine if you were a technical developer entrepreneur and you can build a good product, but your customers were in another location, or they were people you were not able to get to easily.

If a service built a website landing page, setup Google adwords, Facebook campaigns, Twitter profile and ran a campaign for a week or so to give you feedback on what’s the interest, what are potential customers interested in and what would they pay for?

I think this type of service would be very valuable for entrepreneurs. I can easily see various offerings being add-ons to this service.

1. Pricing validation

2. Content (what to write, what medium – email newsletter or Youtube Video, etc.) validation

3. Budget validation

4. Technology landscape validation (what other products should we integrate with)

5. Go to market validation (Where should we advertise, how should we market, etc.)

In the Steve Blank Model for customer discovery above, this set is most useful in the Test problem phase, followed by the Verify phase.

What do you think?

Would you buy this service for $500 – Consumer startups and $1000 for Enterprise startups?

Quora: the best source of secondary market and competitive research

Yesterday I met an entrepreneur who has built his company in a suburb of Seattle, completely bootstrapped and without any outside investors. He is growing 30% YoY and the most amazing thing he taught me was that he gets all his questions answered on Quora.

This led me to take another look at Quora to understand where any entrepreneur could use it. Turns out there are a lot of use cases. Most people use it to get specific questions answered, but I know that Jason from Storm ventures has used it to build the SaasTr brand, another entrepreneur uses it for lead generation, etc.

One of the first places I got to these days to get an understanding of any market is Quora. It turns out many of the questions, competitive information and relevant market numbers are largely available on the Q&A site.

In fact here is a list of things you can use Quora for, but it is such a good waste of time as well, so I still recommend you Google your question and get to Quora than search Quora alone. When you do get to your question, browsing relevant questions within that topic are really valuable.

1. To understand what problems need to be solved that people face

Quora for Digital Marketing Problems
Quora for Digital Marketing Problems

2. To validate key features that are needed.

3. To understand competitive products

4. To learn about the key influencers in the space.

5. To keep up to date with strategies for growth hacking

6. To look for new people to hire (especially non developers)

7. To get a new source of daily ideas

Quora for Ideas
Quora for Ideas

8. To pick a list of questions to answer for your company blog

9. To learn about strategies that will help you sell and get your first few customers

Quora Sales Questions
Quora Sales Questions

10. To get ideas on which investors would be the most relevant for your startup.

Quora for Investing Advice
Quora for Investing Advice

Why you should have at least 1 investor / advisor who has been an #entrepreneur on your board

I think the best thing you can do is to celebrate small milestones at your startup more frequently. They help you ride out the sine-curve of emotions (or the roller coaster journey if you prefer that analogy).

The interesting thing I learned last week from a founder of a small startup last week, was they have weekly celebrations. The reason was it forces the team to think about what they should be doing to celebrate in a few days. Every Thursday, their team would get catered lunch, and a cake, providing the opportunity for one person to be the MVP for that week.

When he was presenting this to us at the advisory board meeting last week, I thought it was pretty cool. I loved the culture they are building of celebrating smalls wins.

Another member of the board, who was an angel investor, nodded his head, and moved on to the next item, which was a milestone he really cared about – $10K in monthly revenue, which the entrepreneur had committed to last quarter. The progress was slower, and so it was likely they were not going to hit that number in the quarter, but he was confident they would in 2 months.

I gathered later (post the board meeting) that they were unable to hire a “Growth Hacker” to their team, since they had interviewed 3 great candidates, but they all picked up offers at other companies.

I asked him what the issue with hiring was. He mentioned that the companies they lost the candidates to were smaller, earlier and were wooing the candidate with a different culture (free food, benefits, pay were all table stakes) of work from anywhere and 2 weeks paid work from a place of their choice (think Hawaii or Bulgaria or anyplace you choose).

That’s when it struck me. You will always have investors who have been through the startup experience and those that have not. Those that have not, will not understand the nuances of what it takes to actually be an entrepreneur, so they are less appreciative of the “many little things” that go towards making the big things happen.

What this entrepreneur was planning to do was to have candidates attend their final interview (if they went to that stage) on a Thursday, so they got to see the culture in action.

In this particular case, the outcome that the investor cared about was revenue. To achieve that though, the #1 thing they needed to do was to hire a good marketing person (Growth hacker) and the #2 and #3 things were to build a good pipeline of opportunities for their newly hired sales people and tweak the on-boarding experience for new customers.

Unfortunately the entrepreneur had failed to explicitly communicate this to the other investors, who were not entrepreneurs before.

If you do not have investors and advisors who are entrepreneurs, make sure that you are clear about the “little” things that need to happen to make the outcomes happen.

What do you do with all the advice you get as an #entrepreneur?

I had the opportunity to meet about 20+ entrepreneurs at the Plug and Play Tech Center, an accelerator and coworking space in Sunnyvale. This cohort was 2 sets of companies in the IoT (Internet of Things) space. Companies ranged from those in wearables, healthcare, connected car and home automation spaces. There were none in the industrial or commercial IoT area.

The startups were trying to get a sense for the changed funding landscape for startups and how to manage the new set of investors they had to deal with. Many in the connected car space were also talking to “strategic investors” such as the automakers themselves to get a sense for their interest to fund startups.

There was a question that one of the startups asked, which was they were adviced by a mentor who was a venture capitalist that “If we get funding from a strategic investor, then it will be viewed as toxic (sic) since we have to build to their needs”.

I am not sure of the context of that discussion, neither do I know about that investor’s background or intent, but this seems like poor advice at the outset. With more context and analysis I might learn more, but at the first glance, this is poorly construed.

I have written about conflicting advice for startups before and also a framework for entrepreneurs on how to take advice.

I think the best way to deal with experts who provide advice professionally is to resist the temptation to dismiss it rightaway or the desire to take it at face value and implement it rightaway.

Surprisingly I have found that most entrepreneurs actually “forget” the advice and seek out to experiment and find their own answer. That’s goodness, but it begs the question, how do you remember to seek what you learned?

So the problem as most people realize is that (like with storing and sharing good things at home) the problem is not storing, it is retrieving.

How can you recall the right advice when you need it?

Some decisions we make are fairly quick and provide us with very little time to process. Most decisions we make as entrepreneurs take require a longer lead time than a day.

The best way I have found to recall information an advice is to ask it again in context, instead of trying to remember what was said before and assume no judgement or bias before asking for a framework to think about the decision.

That way it gives you the ability to recall in context.

This surprising tactic means you should ignore all the advice you get and filter most of it as entertainment.

Which, if you are an entrepreneur is a much needed distraction.

If someone gives you absolute answers to entrepreneur questions, understand their framework first

I am always wary of absolute statements such as “We only invest in entrepreneurs” or “The best way to hire is to have a strong culture” or “Raise money from top tier VC’s, else you will not have a Unicorn exit”.

Why? Primarily because there is no one right answer. The answer is always “It depends”, but “it depends” is a hollow and unsatisfying answer.

So I prefer frameworks.

A framework is a mechanism to think about your particular situation and unique constraints and apply the possible approaches to come up with a personalized strategy.

I was reminded of that by Dave McClure, who talks about portfolio size in his latest post on Venture Capitalists.

When VC’s tell me they want to be “stock pickers” not index fund managers, I tend to have a lot more questions.

A “stock picker” assumes they know something everyone else does not. They have a key market insights, some differentiated information that’s not available to anyone else or knowledge that most others are missing.

An “index fund” manager believes that they dont have that insight, but can make money nonetheless by tracking market returns.

Turns out in the VC world, most VC’s think of themselves as “Stock Pickers”. That is one strategy to win in Venture and generate outsized returns.

To call every other strategy not-workable, is incorrect. While many folks call the other approaches “spray and pray” or “finishing with a net”, the strategy might work.

A framework to think is probably a better approach. That framework has to put desired outcomes on one side, the constraints in the middle and the inputs on the other side.

Outcomes and Constraints
Outcomes and Constraints

This framework visualization is not the only way to think about answering a question. There are many cases, when an “expert” might have learned something unique, analyzed the situation and provided the constraints in a more prioritized fashion. So, instead of looking at all the constraints, you can look at the 2-3 that matter.

Over the last 3-4 weeks, I have been putting together more frameworks to outline problems and questions I have encountered and worksheets or templates that work.

Going back to the VC conundrum, if an investor believes that there’s only one way to approach early stage investing, then they are possibly wrong.

The constraints I have heard from VC’s who follow the stock picker approach is that they dont want to sit on too many boards, dont have time to help more than 5-6 companies at the same time, or that they dont have time to find more than 10 companies are worth investing in.

If those are the constraints, then there are better and more different ways to solve for those constraints.

You can not sit on the board, and still have influence rights, you can hire people to help your portfolio and use technology to find more relevant companies and founders.

Most constraints can be solved, as long as you are clear about the outcomes you desire.

Some constraints you do not want to compromise on, and that is a constraint as well.

As an entrepreneur, though, if you are given only “one answer” or “one approach” or “one strategy” to be successful, you are talking to a fairly inexperienced person who you should probably not take advice from in the first place.

What is customer segmentation and why is it important for the #startup #entrepreneur?

One of the first things you will realize as an entrepreneur is that you will need to be absolutely clear about your customer’s problems and envision your product solving their most important pain point. This realization results in an appreciation for the “micro” problem for a “small set of customers” to begin with.

That in essence is customer segmentation.

The discipline of finding the factors that differentiate one set of your potential customers from another based on a set of characteristics.

First, segmentation is a discipline.

The output of that discipline is a) a way to make it easier to identify your customers via a known name or persona b) a means to target them more effectively and c) a language to explain their problems / pain points and d) an ontology to express your solution to help them solve the problem.

Second, you will have to find factors that help you differentiate customers.

The idea behind the factors it to help you focus on those customers who have the highest pain, and hence the most propensity to buy, or the most desire to solve the pain and eliminate (during that period) than those that dont have the need immediately.

Third is to identify and document the characteristics that help you find the patterns or a set of questions to help guide your segmentation.

The best way I have found you can document the characteristics is to write down a set of interview questions that can help you during a discussion with potential customers. Others have used the buyer persona canvas or a simple tool to document thinking, feeling, seeing into maps.

Buyer Persona Canvas
Buyer Persona Canvas
Persona Map VP Sales
Persona Map VP Sales]

The empathy map is more relevant for design, but it can be made very relevant for you to leverage as a founder to understand the sales cycle, buying process, marketing criteria or service design.

Lets take an example. Assume that you are building a CRM system for SMB, to help them track their sales and allow sales reps to directly provide a quote and contract using just their mobile phone.

Most entrepreneur’s state that all SMB are their customers. This is usually done to prove that the market is very large and hence deserves attention.

The goal of the segmentation exercise is to make the market extremely small (a set of customer you can get in front of, collect feedback and test your hypothesis in as short a time as possible).

In most B2B scenarios there are 3 major and many minor characteristics that define segments of customers.

1. Size of the customer: Some people define size by revenues, others by # of employees, still others by # of sales people within the organization, still others by # of quotes the company delivers in a year, etc.

2. Industry vertical: In industries where speed to quoting and contract delivery makes a difference in the sales process, your solution might be more valuable, (e.g. some insurance verticals) than others were the contract process involves multiple rounds of competitive bids.

3. Title of the buyer: Titles (VP of Sales, Director of sales, Sales Manager, etc.) are usually an indicator of spending authority. In our case the VP of sales at a small company in the insurance brokerage is likely to have the ability to try and purchase the solution to help his sales professionals be more productive, than a Sales manager, who, is likely going to focus on trying the solution to offer feedback, but may not have the authority to buy. They will end up being a user, but not the economic buyer.

It used to be that location was the 4th characteristic, but with the Internet, is highly possible that your customers are in a different location (physically) than you are.

For B2C companies, most segmentation is done by demographics or psychographics. The 3 most frequently used characteristics are age, gender and income. There are many others as well, but these are the primary. I will share the B2C example in the next post.

A framework for how to take advice – for #entrepreneurs

There is no shortage of advice or number of advisers and the time you are given advice as an entrepreneur.

It can be overwhelming for an entrepreneur, especially when they hear from conflicting advice from trusted sources.

The 3 most important factors that should go into the decision making process for taking advice is a) Who should you take advice from b) What advice should you take and c) When should you seek that advice.

There are 2 kinds of people you take advice from – those you consider as “experts” in the field and those who have “experience” with the specific problem you set are seeking the advice from. Everyone else is rather a big waste of time. So, if you are an entrepreneur and seek advice from someone at a much larger company on what you should do with your product direction, when they are not an expert in the field, then be prepared to be given useless advice. Well, you asked for it so there.

Expertise is easy to ascertain since, it has a factual basis. If someone is a certified legal professional, then they know the aspect of law they practice. They won’t necessarily be the best at litigation or immigration if they are a corporate attorney, but they would be the best at company legalese.

Experience is best couched with situational awareness. If the person giving the advice is smart, they will tell you the specific conditions, background and environment that the course of action worked. From that, you can at least determine if it might work for you in your specific situation.

The worst people to take advice from are those that pattern match. In my experience, most investors, general practitioners and enthusiasts understand a situation by talking to many people and offering their generic opinion couched as “experience”.

If you seek advice from those whose experiences don’t match your current situation, then you will get suboptimal advice. People who are confident may tell you they don’t know, but it is more likely you will get opinions from 3rd party reading couched as experience.

You need actually both expertise and experiential advice for most situations, which is why understanding the contours of the problem will help you explain it to the person you are seeking advice from.

What you need advice on falls into 2 buckets as well. Easy questions and hard questions. Easy questions have a binary outcome. These are fairly rare. Most difficult questions tend to have a range of answers, with complicated if-then-else statements around the answer.

Easy questions are those that can be answered by experts alone. Can you hire someone from your ex-employer is fairly easy to answer if you look at your exit interview or contract and have a legal person review it.

Hard questions typically will give you multiple choices, not just two. Should I raise money is an easy question to answer if you are running out of cash, but the harder question of who to raise money from and how much to raise are harder questions that can run the gamut based on your situation.

Finally, when you seek advice is also fairly binary. You can either seek advice when you need it, or way before you encounter your specific situation. Seeking it after is just a waste of time – it reaffirms your position and makes your feel nice, or it will make you regret the decision since the advice you get is contrary to the decision you already took.

If you seek advice just when you need it, prepare to be rushed and expect to miss out on key details that tend to be nuances and shades of grey. For example, trying to decide what type of company (C corp or S corp) you should incorporate is best done when you don’t need it done yesterday. It will give you time to think about the options if you learn about the options way before you need them and keep the notes handy.

Seeking advice way before you need it is useful in situations when the impact is longer term. When the decision to be made cannot be reversed very easily (for example who you want as a cofounder), you are better off getting advice on the type of cofounder you need.

The biggest challenge is always the conflicting nature of the advice. What do you do when two people, both of who you trust, offer very different advice or in fact the exact opposite advice.

The relative scale of their expertise and experience does not count, so most people go with what they feel “more comfortable” with. Or they get more opinions and do a “vote count”. Either way it tends to be sub-optimal only in hindsight.

Everything I learned about entrepreneurship, my mother knew already

My mom

Happy mother’s day. I still miss my mom. She passed away a couple of years ago. Most everything I learned about entrepreneurship over the year’s she knew already and tried to tell me but, I had to learn it on my own, making my own mistakes. Here are the 5 things I learned from her.

1. Have a bias for action: My mom was not one who would talk too much when you needed help or if you needed to get something done. She’d lead by action and focus on “doing” not saying. Her actions truly spoke much louder than her words. When you are working on your startup, it is likely you will have advisers, board members, investors and mentors who will provide you will all the advice you need. The best advisers have a bias for action.

2. Be helpful and give generously: Before “Pay it forward” was a big deal, my mom would practice it. I follow a similar but more selfish approach to paying it forward – Dig your well before you are thirsty. My mom would help others, without expecting anything in return. Do that before you start your company and it helps you when you build your startup. Take as many chances to help others as you build your startup – if you have some time to help, dont pass up the opportunity. Whether it is to help a fellow entrepreneur recruit, critique their website or help the trouble shoot a problem with their technology. It will come back twice as fast and return you twice as much.

3. Your attitude matters more than your state of being: My mom’s attitude was “always sunny”. She would carry the weather with her. Not in a way that made you think things were not difficult, but she’d never get you down because she was in a troubled spot. Her attitude was one where she’d focus her energy, when she was down towards making others feel better. She’d remind me that most people will remember how you helped them feel when they were down.

“I've learned that people will forget what you said, people will forget what you did, but people will never forget how you made them feel.” - May Angelou

 

4. Focus on things under your control: My mom would obsess over the salt in the sambar, the right sized cuts on the okra and the temperature of the rice before she served it. She would focus on things she felt were under her control and many times the little things. As an entrepreneur, I have found that even if you set the vision and mission, the strategy and plan right, if you dont execute the small things well, you will do poorly. If you worry more about the competition than your own product direction, you will do badly.

5. Turn your biggest challenges into opportunities: My mom’s attitude towards adversity was enlightening. Although her first instinct was to run from it, she would tell herself that it was going to be better because of her bias towards action. She could find ways to optimize the way to make the biggest challenges into her opportunity to make a difference. As an entrepreneur, you will find customer development challenges, hiring challenges, fund raising challenges, etc. The best way to overcome these is to find a way to accept the challenge and brainstorm to execute the plans you lay out toward eliminating them.

If you have a mom, you should call her today (as often as you can every day) and tell her how much you love her, and thank her for bringing you to this world. I did not do that enough, hopefully you can learn from my mistake.

How to get channel sales or indirect sales going for your startup?

When I talk to entrepreneurs who are developers and they don’t have a hustler (sales person) on board, they ask me if they should outsource their sales function. I usually advice them never to outsource startup sales efforts. They then look to find partners who they can work with. The main reason they want to do this is because they find the entire process of hiring, managing and growing their sales team revolting.

Some of them talk about possible “channel” sales efforts via partners or larger companies in their domain who can help, who they would like to approach.

When I tell them about the potential costs, commissions and the customer relationship efforts that are involved, they take a second look at their direct sales efforts. I thought I’d document that for many of the other entrepreneurs who have the same question.

There are 5 models of partnerships I have encountered so far in my career. I will outline these models and list their pros and cons. While I cant say which model will work for you, and there may be other models as well, I think understanding the landscape will help you figure out which one makes sense in your situation.

First off, most channel or indirect sales models assume that the partner has an existing relationship with the startup’s customer. After all you are trying to shorten your sales cycle by using the partner’s strength.

Lets now look at these different models.

1. Co selling partnerships: These agreements tend to have a low to medium level of commitment from both the partner and the startup. If a sales person from the partner is going to meet the client, and are in active discussions on a deal and they feel like bringing your solution will help them win the opportunity, they will look at trying to position your product as well. In this case, you will have to go on the sales call with the sales person at the partner. The advantage of this partnership is that you typically dont have to do the initial “opening of the doors”. The “paper” or contract is typically separate as well. This means there will be 2 separate agreements for the customer to sign.

Pros: Since there is no commitment (most times) from both parties towards a quota or target, the discount you offer to the partner is low (typically starts at 20% and can go up to 30%). Also, since you can have a direct relationship with the customer, you can control the relationship going forward. Be sure to ensure that there are lower levels of “pass through” revenue you have to pay to the partner after year one.

Cons: There is no commitment to sell by the partner so you cant quite depend on this channel to deliver consistently. The customer also tends to get confused about the single person who will responsible for their success (the bad term usually used is one throat to choke).

2. Reseller agreements (sometimes called VAR or Value Added Resellers) : This partnership is medium to higher level of commitment. The partner will either resell your product on their paper or include your “quote” in their contract. You will hence have to train and manage their sales professionals.

Pros: There is a quota commitment in most cases, so you can be sure that sales people are motivated to sell, but you want to be sure that there are some downsides if they dont hit the commitments, else all this is a co selling agreement structured on the partner’s paper.

Cons: Since there are commitments, you will pay a much higher commission % – typically 40 – 60% are standard. Some partners may ask you for more. You will still have to train and do the lead generation to bring their sales folks into deals. Typically when you sign an agreement, even if you bring the partner into a new customer, they might ask you for the commission that they technically dont deserve.

3. OEM associations: When your product (or module) becomes part of another product and is integrated in such a way as to cause sales of your product each time the other product is sold, have an OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer) association. These are typically for run time modules of developer products or a contact management product within a CRM system as an example.

Pros: Since your product is part of another product, you will typically be sold each time the other product is sold. In most cases this guarantees revenues and commits the partner to certain revenue goals.

Cons: Since your product is part of a module, you dont have the end customer relationship. Most OEM products also tend to generate smaller % of sales. Don’t be surprised if the final product is sold by the partner for a significantly more cost that what they pay you. Typically I have seen 10% of the final cost of the product paid out to the module.

There are 2 other models that I dont have much experience with, so I will let you give you an overview and try and address them in a future post.

4. Certified agent alliances: These are loose agency models (typical in affiliate sales) where the solo sales person who maybe has a few clients will try and sell for you. Since you have to recruit and manage each sales person yourself, these will be hard to scale. The only advantage is that the sales person is not an employees, so their base salary costs dont hit your books. This also means they are less committed to your product.

5. Distributor agreements: When your product is sold in a different geography where you need a local partner to stock (for hardware) or help educate local re-sellers, then distributors can help you with education, local tax and integration and identifying resellers. They can help you navigate a local market, but since they stock and manage multiple products for that region, getting their attention to focus on your product tends to be rather hard.

Startup Channel Sales
Channel partnership Framework

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